Soils are complex mixtures of minerals, water, air, organic matter, and countless organisms. The Earth is covered by land and water. Soil supports both living and non-living beings, which is vital for both. Soil is responsible for growth. It is the skin of the Earth. Soil serves as media for the growth of all kinds of plants. Soils modify the atmosphere by emitting and absorbing gases (carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, and the like) and dust. Soil provides habitat for animals that live in the Soil and to organisms that account for most living things on Earth. Soil absorbs, holds, release alters, and purifies most of the water in terrestrial systems. Soil recycles nutrients, including carbon, so that living things can use them over and over again. Plants are born from the Soil and, after death goes back in the Soil itself. Thus, the soil is responsible for living and non-living organisms of Earth.
What is soil sustainability? Why is it important?
Soil can get eroded, contaminated, and acidified. Soil is the most vital part of nature, along with water necessary to survive living organisms. Soil can get destroyed due to natural and man-made disasters. Soil is required for us to grow crops to eat and survive. It is required for farming and agricultural purposes. Soil can be preserved in many ways, namely:
- Terrace farming: It is the practice of creating nearly level areas in a hillside area.
- Crop rotation: Cover crops such as legumes, plants, white turnips, radishes, and other species are rotated with cash crops to blanket the soil year-round and act as a green manure that replenishes nitrogen and other critical nutrients. Cover crops also help suppress weeds.
- Soil-conservation farming: Soil-conservation farming involves no-till farming, green manures, and other soil-enhancing practices, making it hard for the soils to be equalized. Such farming methods attempt to mimic the biology of barren lands.
- Salinity management: Salinity in the Soil is caused by rinsing with salty water. Water then evaporates from the Soil, leaving the salt behind. Salt breaks down the soil structure, causing infertility and reduced growth. So, managing and preventing this can help preserve the Soil.
That is where soil sustainability comes into the picture. Healthy Soil is needed for us to survive, and Soil is also decreasing, which can be a threat to us. Many countries are trying to conserve Soil and sustain its quality by taking many measures and carrying out different programs. The government of every state is coming together to achieve this and make it possible.
Some measures for soil sustainability are: prevent overgrazing, construct dams, plant trees, make sure all the agricultural practices are proper and in order. As the citizens of the nation, we can also help the government in Soil sustainably by planting more trees rather than cutting, constructing fewer cement buildings, and keeping the population in control. This is the basic that we can do, and every individual should strive, respect, and learn to love our mother Earth and not be selfish and leave something for our future generations.